Saturday, January 11, 2020
Identify One Primary Value Creation, One Support, and One General Management Process You Might Encounter at Zappos.
Wilfredo Gonzalez External Hiring November 26, 2011 Human Resource Recruitment and selection Ã¢â¬â Fall 2011 JR smith would have an advantage when hiring an external candidate for the Fort Lewis office. This candidate should be someone from the area well verse of the military rules, the demographics. This candidate will go though the full and formal hiring process of evaluation. The external hiring process relies on the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s performance during screening, interviews and assessment. We have one current staff member that served in the National Guard for five years but only has a high diploma and another staff member that has fifteen years experience in customer relations but has never lived or served around military personnel. Therefore the candidate needed for the area of 19,089 people as of 2000, is someone who has military and civilian workforce experience, an MBA , and have strong customer service relations. The population of Fort Lewis in 2000 was 19,089 with a decline in 2010 of 8,043 in the amount of 11,046. Race/ethnicity| 2010 population| 2010 percentage| 2000 population| 2000 percentage| 2000-2010 change| White| 7,538| 68. 2%| 11,537| 60. 4%| -34. 7%| Black| 1,253| 11. 3%| 3,882| 20. 3%| -67. 7%| Two or more races| 1,058| 9. 6%| 1,230| 6. 4%| -14. 0%| Other race| 433| 3. 9%| 1,189| 6. 2%| -63. 6%| Asian| 336| 3. 0%| 650| 3. 4%| -48. 3%| Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander| 258| 2. 3%| 342| 1. 8%| -24. 6%| American Indian/Alaska Native| 170| 1. 5%| 259| 1. 4%| -34. 4%| Total| 11,046| 100%| 19,089| 100%| -42. %| *Hispanic origin| 1,800| 16. 3%| 2,507| 13. 1%| -28. 2%| 2010 population by race/ethnicity| | | | | | http://data. spokesman. com/census/2010/washington/cities/fort-lewis-cdp-wa/ Research shows that organizations that foster strong cultures have clear values that give potential employees to embrace the cultures. Therefore a person with military back ground will be able to understand the struggles of the potential employees and help them the training needed for future employment. A strong culture may be especially beneficial to firms operating in the service sector sine JR smith are responsible for delivering the service and for evaluations important constituents make about this firm. Because research indicates that organizations may derive the following benefits from developing strong and productive cultures. It would better align the company toward achieving its vision, mission and goals. Give the employees high motivation and loyalty and it will help in shaping employee behavior at work, enabling JR Smith to be more efficient. The goal of having someone that has the correct customer experience management is to move customers from satisfied to loyal and then from loyal to advocate. CRM strategies and solutions are designed to focus on the product, price and enterprise. JR smith focus for the future is through job training, pension and VA benefits consultation and resume writing services with full time agents. Therefore a canadite with the customer service experience and military background will be valuable to the company from dealing with personal from the military. The fort Lewis area is made up of retired and transient service people ready to hit the work force but need a little help. A person with the expericance need for JR Smith management position will be able to guide them the right way with the back ground needed and degree. A person without the military back ground and only the degree will not understand the needs of the retired military personal. Reference Jean M. Phillips, Stanley M. Guly (2012). Strategic staffing. second edition, New Jersey: Person Hall education,INC. | | | | | | http://data. spokesman. com/census/2010/washington/cities/fort-lewis-cdp-wa/
Friday, January 3, 2020
Definition: A T4A Canadian tax information slip is a Statement of Pension, Retirement, Annuity, and Other Income. It is prepared and issued by an employer, a trustee, an estate executor or liquidator, a pension administrator, or a corporate director, to tell you and the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) how much of certain types of income you paid during a tax year and the amount of income tax that was deducted. Use T4As in preparing and filing your Canadian income taxes. Other T4 tax information slips include: T4 - Statement of Remuneration Paid T4A(OAS) - Statement of Old Age Security T4A(P) - Statement of Canada Pension Plan Benefits T4E - Statement of Employment Insurance and Other Benefits T4RIF - Statement of Income From a Registered Retirement Income Fund T4RSP - Statement of RRSP Income For more information on T4As, see T4A Tax Slips for Canadian Income Taxes.
Thursday, December 26, 2019
According to a poll of 10 to 16 year olds done by the advocacy group Children Now, 77 percent say that there is too much premarital sex on T.V., while 62 percent say sex on T.V. and in movies influences kids to have sex when they are too young (Clark, Sex, Violence). The influences of the media is felt everywhere and especially in terms of human sexuality. Everything from TV commercials to the newspaper has some form of sex in it, usually to keep the audience interested. In modern society, the changing times as well as media executives wanting more ratings(and therefore money) have lead to teenagers more willing to try sexual acts at a younger age and the country being more openminded about sexual issues. The main cause behind theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦How a teen is effected by it can vary. Due to the effects of sexuality in the media, more teens are open to sexual acts and at a younger age now. Adolescents are now open to hook-ups or friends-with-benefits, where they have ca sual sexual encounters at parties and clubs between youngsters who are not emotionally involved with one another which are influenced by new techology and take away the first date which would help put safe sex into the teens minds (Friedman). Some folks are worried that the sex in the media will counteract sex education and do not include problems that having sexual intercourse can bring about. In his article Sex, Violence and the Media, Charles S. Clark explains: To some..., the chief concern is that AIDS, sex education, birth control or abortion are seldom mentioned as the fictional characters hop from bed to bed. But others see the danger in the... message communicated though steady repetition that everyones doing it. (1) Overall, hopefully teenagers are still getting the message to stay safe if they choose to become sexually active in the face of the medias negative influence regarding sex. Another cause of the increase of sex in the media is that times have changed and perceptions about sex have been altered. In her article Teen Sex, Jane Friedman explains how in the 50s and 60s couples in a marital relationship like Lucy and Ricky Ricardo of theShow MoreRelatedViolence And Sex On Television898 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Violence and Sex on Television: Effects on the Younger Audience In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, the media is used greatly for communication, advertisement, information, and for numerous other reasons. The world has evolved by technological advances as well as by the type of content that is put out on the internet, radio, and especially on television. In particular, violence and sex are two of the most controversial content types that have been recently used loosely in the present as compared to theRead MoreCulture and the Mass Media1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesImpact of Mass Media on Enculturation The mass media and culture go hand and hand in today s society. The American culture thrives on the Mass media and this has become American culture today. Ã¢â¬Å"Mass media is any medium used to transmit mass communication. Until recently mass media was clearly defined and was comprised of the eight mass media industries; books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television and the Internet (Lane, 2007).Ã¢â¬ The mas media is no longer simple to defineRead More Views on Teens Pregnancies Through the Years Essay844 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestheir actions. Taking that into consideration the influences of the teens are highly important during the pre teen stage all the way to adult hood. During the time of this impressionable stage many of the teens are having sex not because of love, but because it is a trend. The media is glamorizing teen pregnancy and leading to a cultural shift. Around the world teenage pregnancy has been an issue. Many of the teen mothers are between 15 and 19. There have been a variety of attempts to provide a declineRead MoreSex And Violence In The Media Influence Teen Behavior.1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSex and Violence in the Media Influence Teen Behavior In the 21st Century Sex and Violence in the media has had a good and bad impact on our society. It is very common around the world that many kids are exposed to violence or some type of sexual activity rather in household or in the media. The media has become a common reason as to why violence occur. Teenagers in the 21st century are exposed to more sexuality and violence than ever. Being exposed to sex and violence has had a bad impact on teensRead MoreLabelling Society As An Agitated State Over The Phenomenon Of Sex Offenders1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLabelling society as an agitated state over the phenomenon of sex offenders and sex crime has been well documented with sex offenders inciting a vast amount of fear and anxiety amongst the general public over the decades. Due to this evoked sense of moral panic lawmakers have been passing legislative initiatives and social policies since the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s in order to protect the public from sexual victimization. Taken together from reviewed literature it is apparent that there are numerous contributorsRead MoreMedia And Its Effects On Society976 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society if one were to walk down a populated sidewalk, it would seem merely impossible to spot a sole not twiddling away on their phone. With an entire world unfolding at their fingertips, we witness a society that has become addicted to media. Used as a powerful source of knowledge and entertainment, media plays an enormous role in the development of human life and gender distinction. Through the use of media, guidelines consisting of generated ideas and ways of living, affect both menRead MoreJust living in a Material World1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhat makes the American society American? Is it our big cities? Our adaptations to new technology? Our extravagant shopping opportunities? Is it the convenience of our society? The fast food opportunities? The drive-thrus? It is our emphasis on personal travel and transportatio n means? Or is it our desire for wealth and success? Many Americans focus on these aspects of our society to be happy in their lives. Americans strive to be the best and often little will stop them on their way. There is anRead MoreMedia And Its Influenceon Relationships . Summary Of Proposal1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages MEDIA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON RELATIONSHIPS Summary of Proposal The correlation between the use of social media and the stigma around the Ã¢â¬Å"hookupÃ¢â¬ culture among young adults will be exlplored in this study. Participants will range from ages sixteen to twenty one and half will be engaged in social media and the other half will not. Since previous research studies have shown that the stigma around the Ã¢â¬Å"hookupÃ¢â¬ culture has evolved, this study will examine whether or not social media is aRead More The Growing Trend of Sex and Violence in Media Today Essay examples692 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesModern day society is composed of rules and structures. The general public has become much more sensitive over the years, resulting in a very politically correct atmosphere. Moreover, parents have decided that the opportune way of reaching their ambitions is through the lives of their children. Under this strict lifestyle, one would presume that our values are very conservative. Surprisingly, the opposite is true. Due to the sexual and vi olent permissiveness in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Multi-Media, our society has developedRead MoreMedia Influence On Women s Body Image1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschanged in many ways. This is very evident in the female sex, especially through media. Ã¢â¬Å"Americans spend about 68 hours per week exposed to various forms of mediaÃ¢â¬ (US Census Bureau 2009). This media exposure through outlets such as t.v., radio, music videos, movies, and the internet, all influence the way people think about gender. The media influence is very evident in the way people view women and think about women in different cultures. Media influence on women creates negative viewpoints with how
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ion, Socrates tries to prove that all poets are ignorant. He did not leave out himself, as a matter of fact, what separated Socrates from the others is the fact that he knew he was ignorant. In Socrates conversation with Ion- the rhapsode, he was able to prove that Ion is ignorant by asking him about Homer and another poet who spoke about the same topic, Ion was able to speak up about the questions on Homer, but not that of the other poet, even though they both spoke about the same content. Socrates believed that beautiful speech requires knowledge, and even though the Rhapsodes are ignorant, they were still able to speak beautifully, how is that possible? Socrates dilemma was divine inspiration. He believed that the goddess of memory speaks through the Rhapsodes. To further prove how ignorant Ion was, when Socrates mentioned this to him, he totally agreed with Socrates, even though it was meant as an insult. Also in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ion, we saw two different teaching methods between Socrates and the rhapsodes. Socrates believed that for a student to learn they have to ask questions and be actively engaged in the conversation. However, the rhapsodes were more of an entertainer than a teacher. They would dress very nicely and recite the poems to the students as if they were audiences, and in turn the students were required to retain the information given by the rhapsodes. Section IV: Main Post: PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic In this section, what was most important and interesting toShow MoreRelatedThe Evolving Role of Poetry and the Poet Essay1751 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesconsists of a series of footnotes to Plato, claimed Alfred North Whitehead in 1929s Process and Reality. Plato studied under Socrates in Athens, Greece, and showed a deep interest for politics. It wasnt until Socrates death that Plato turned from politics to philosophy. He developed Idealism in opposition to the belief of the Sophists and opened a school in Athens. The Academy was one of the first organized schools in Western Civilization it was here that Plato taught his most famous student, AristotleRead MoreThe Body And The Soul1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAn Analysis of the Distinctions of the Body and the Soul in the Philosophy of Socrates This philosophical study will define the distinctions of the body and the soul as defined in the philosophy of Socrates. In the Phaedo, Socrates defines the important distinction between the Ã¢â¬ visibleÃ¢â¬ body and the Ã¢â¬Å"invisibleÃ¢â¬ substance of the soul. Socrates defines the temporal and changing nature of the visible body, which is impermanent. In contrast to this view, the soul is a higher form of incomposite energyRead MorePlato s Classical Athenian Architecture, Drama, And Arts1762 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPlato Plato was born around 428 B.C., Both of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s parents were from distinguished aristocratic families. Besides being born into an illustrious family, Plato was born into an illustrious city. He was born in the wake of AthensÃ¢â¬â¢s Golden Age, the period that had witnessed AthensÃ¢â¬â¢s the beginning of the strongest Greek power, the birth of classical Athenian architecture, drama, and arts. His father Ariston died when he was a child. His mother Perictione remarried the politician Pyrilampes. He wasRead MoreThe Philosophy of Socrates: a Lover of Wisdom2030 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesRunning Head: THE PHILOSOPHY OF SOCRATES 1 The Philosophy of Socrates: A Lover of Wisdom (2052 Words) THE PHILOSOPHY OF SOCRATES 2 The lessons of life that are delivered by Socrates act as a basis for Western philosophy. Plato, the writer of The Apology, significantly respects Socrates and his dialogues act as aRead MoreAn Analysis Of Tolstoy Tolstoy s The Sigh 2435 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesabout the relationship between art and life most similarly to the way that I do, and Plato thinks about the relationship between art and life most contrary to the way that I do. In Plato s piece Ion, Socrates believes Ion can only recite Homer s poetry due to inspiration, and not art. (Plato, 64). On a fundamental level, Plato believes that all artists must have common knowledge to truly be artists. Unlike Plato, Tolstoy believes that Ã¢â¬Å"great works of art are only great because they are accessibleRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words Ã |Ã 820 PagesCongress Subject Headings: Principles and Application, Fourth Edition Lois Mai Chan Developing Library and Information Center Collections, Fifth Edition G. Edward Evans a nd Margaret Zarnosky Saponaro Metadata and Its Impact on Libraries Sheila S. Intner, Susan S. Lazinger, and Jean Weihs Organizing Audiovisual and Electronic Resources for Access: A Cataloging Guide, Second Edition Ingrid Hsieh-Yee Introduction to Cataloging and Classification, Tenth Edition Arlene G. Taylor LIbRaRy and InfoRMaTIon
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about the International Guidelines and standards that govern the Human Machine Interactions. Answer: Introduction HCI has been working over the ISO ergonomics, with user interface and the software engineering standards. This has helped the user interface and standards to contain the different precise specifications. The standards are set under the context of use, and the user test methods, software interface, interaction and the different software quality standards, the hardware interface and the display terminals, the user centred process set for the development and the capability of the organisation to be considered as user centred (Cakmak et al., 2016). As per the evaluation, HCI works over the evaluation of the designing, evaluation and the implementation for the human use and the study of the major phenomenon that has been set around it. It is important for the individual user, group of users who are working together to focus on the embedded system, user interface where the computers are expensive and are used by the technical people only. Literature Review As per the analysis, the HCI focus on the concerns related to the selection of a proper input device. Here, the International guidelines are depending upon the input and output devices to track the task and determine the style for interaction. The development and improvement with safety standards works over appealing the users and operators to interact with the computer based systems in remote manner (Lancia et al, 2017). The utility matches with the extent to provide the right functionality so that it becomes easy for the user to build on the formulas and the other programs. The standards are set with the general principles from where the interfaces and the procedures could be derived. Here, the focus is on ISO/IEC JTC1 where the SC35 has been for the user interfaces set with evolving the work on the keyboard layout. Here, this also requires the reconciliation of the different usability forms for representing the access to information through internet, international standards which are expensive and difficult as well. The use of the product is set with the effectiveness, efficiency and the satisfaction, where the process is about the development of a product, and holding the capability to apply the user centred designs (Burkhart, 2016). The development of the ISO standards for the HCI focus on the national standard bodies where the focus is on the published documents which tend to change in the significant manner from version to version till there is a consensus which is reached. The standards are set with contexts and the testing methods where the product quality and the quality model are to define the use metrics, guidance on usability and the methodology for the ISO 9241-11. The hardware interface and the development process work with the interactive systems where the usability methods support the human centred designing process and proper descriptions which are related to the ergonomic requirements. Here, the approaches are set to impose the consistency wi th the interface components like the icons and the PDA scripts and the other cursor controllers. This will help de-factor industry to work over the standards which are influential than the other ISO forms. The ISO 9241 HCI has a major impact with activities needing to produce the usable forms of the products. The principles are set with refining the model which could be used to assess the capability of the organisation and working over carrying out the user centred designs as well (Akash et al., 2017). The product oriented bottom up approach is set with making the systems easy to use. Here, the usability though the International guidelines and Standards for the HMI or HCI (Human Computer Interactions) is based on the high-level quality objective with designed usability programs as well. The International Guidelines for HCI depend on the effectiveness, efficiency and the usability formats with proper accomplishment of the goals and consider about the performance for the on-line purchase. The appealing of the user is through gaining the market share and working over buying or using the products with the higher standardised forms. The Google search engine has a higher market with better efficiency as well. The productivity with lowered costs help in improving the standards of the business management system. Here, the disciplines of the computer science and the linguistics are for speech synthesis and recognition which works over the computing of the systems, with providing a proper information about the human mental capabilities as well (Badie, 2016). The sociology is for designing the practices and work over the effective designing of the posters, brochures and the logs with visual communication. Analysis As per the analysis, the International Standards are set for the different activities for the quality and the usability requirements. Here, ISO 9241-11 and ISO 14598-1 has been used where there is an incorporation of the usability into the quality system and designing process. The product oriented standards are for the relative contribution to the software quality. This has been mainly to deal with the usability forms where the ISO 9241 has been for the office work with proper display of the visual terminals. Here, the standards are also specific for the details and appearance and behaviour of user interface. This will provide a complete evaluation of the user interfaces which depends on the user, task and the environment. The product with no major intrinsic usability holds the capability to be used for a context. The industry designing is applied for the different usability of the products which needs to be improved. It also works over the interactive and the interaction designers who work on evaluating the products related to methods and principles (Shih et al., 2016). The UI design engineers are the people who develop the model with end user experience, where the information architecture is for the user experiences. The HCI designing is to identify the needs and establish proper requirements, that will be helpful in handling the easy functioning of the website, with availability of the information as well. The compatibility, usability and making the system easy for the use are important points which needs to be focused on to work over the technology growth, control and the user standards. Application to the real world The real-time applications from industrial fields, manufacturing to autonomous exploration is for the remote planets. The robotics deals with the designing, construction, manufacturing and the application of robots. The swarm applications for the real robots is not used because it is found to be economical with the high costs and the larger area is also required for the execution purpose (Schutte, 2017). The hand gesture real time application is one of the example, where the use of tracking algorithm which involves the motion modelling and the motion analyses. The detecting of the skin and the non-skin colours is the parameter for the real-world applications. the track is also about the intensity with the weighted centroid method that tends to keep the track of skin regions as well. The real-time application of the hand gesture includes the foot-bot robot which is in the swarmanoid project, where the foot-bot robot is for the swarm applications. Here, there are different subsets for the sensors and the actuators which are for the platform to work over the recognition of the gestures. The motorised tracking based wheels also allow the robot to move at a speed, where there are infrared based range and the bearing sensor that allow to detect the line of sight. The second example is about designing a car with the interactive display which also allow the buyer of the car to select the different numbers based on the site that is used for the new cars. The selection of the dialogue is to direct towards the non-technical user where the perspective buyer has to work to make choice for the car. The other solution is based on the orientation, with different visual switches and on-off types of attributes like the binding of edges and the other similar properties. Conclusion The ISO standards 20282 is for the ease of operations for the different products where there is a need to define the user applications with specific test methods for measuring the easy of operations. Here, the common industry formats are mainly to document the usability test reports and the surface interface and interaction (Lancia et al., 2017). This includes the suitability for the task, learning, individuals who work on the user expectations with proper control and the tolerance of error. There are assessments for the conformance which is related to the principles in ISO 9241. Here, the continued tension is mainly producing the national standards to meet the needs of the large markets that tend to contribute towards the international standards. References Cakmak, H., El Haddad, K. (2016). SCE in HMI Social Communicative Events in Human Machine Interactions. Burkhart, C. (2016). L-8: Using Human-Machine Interactions to Enhance Astronaut Performance and Adaptation in Reduced Gravity Environments. Badie, F. (2016). Concept representation analysis in the context of human-machine interactions. InProceedings of the 14th International Conference on e-Society(pp. 55-62). Shih, V., Zhang, L., Kothe, C., Makeig, S., Sajda, P. (2016, October). Predicting decision accuracy and certainty in complex brain-machine interactions. InSystems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 2016 IEEE International Conference on(pp. 004076-004081). IEEE. Schutte, P. C. (2017). How to make the most of your human: design considerations for humanmachine interactions.Cognition, Technology Work,19(2-3), 233-249. Akash, K., Hu, W. L., Reid, T., Jain, N. (2017, May). Dynamic modeling of trust in human-machine interactions. InAmerican Control Conference (ACC), 2017(pp. 1542-1548). IEEE. Lancia, L., Chaminade, T., Nguyen, N., Prevot, L. (2017, August). Studying the link between inter-speaker coordination and speech imitation through human-machine interactions. InInterspeech 2017.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Upon examining issues of mind and thought, the questions of artificial intelligence and its capabilities become important considerations for answering the ultimate question of what thought truly is. Computerized calculation is one of the few events that is somewhat analogous to human cognitive thought, so the extension of this current technology to more advanced future applications makes it a very interesting testing area for questions into consciousness. If one concludes that the advancement from cash registers to present day computers is a step closer to human thought, then we must concede that progressing technology will bring us closer and perhaps to the very point of true cognitive skills. The dilemma left to us philosophers and scientists is to determine when a machine has reached the point of thought, or at least to create a rough guideline. A.M. Turing proposed a test to solve this problem. Named, appropriately enough, the Turing test, it contains a controversial method of te sting called the imitation game. The idea is to put one man and one woman in two rooms and have them questioned by an interrogator in a third room. The man would try to answer questions in a way which would suggest he is a woman. The woman attempts to answer in a way to reveal the truth of the matter. If the man fools the interrogator, it is said that he can think like a woman, or, at the very least, mimic a woman's responses. This game can also be played with a computer in the male slot, trying to convince the interrogator that it is human. It would follow reason that if a computer could pass this test, it could think like a human, or at least mimic one. Perhaps the abilities showcased in the test alone would not be sufficient, but Daniel C. Dennett claims that "[t]he assumption Turing was prepared to make was that nothing could possibly pass the Turing test by winning the Imitation Game without being able to perform indefinitely many other clearly intelligent actions" (Dennett 93) . One often cited criticism of this notion is the idea of mimicry. Imagine a program that stored an almost infinite amount of information regarding sentences and grammar and was able to spit out contextualy appropriate sentences to a wide variety of inquiries. The computer has no knowledge of what the information means; it is acting much as a parrot does. Luckily for Turing, there is no shortage of responses for this claim. First of all, as Douglas Hofstadter points outs, "[t]he number of sentences you'd need to store to be able to respond in a normal way to all possible sentences in a conversation is astronomical, really unimaginable" (Hofstadter 92). The computer would also have to contain a complex microprocessor to keep up with conversation in a timely and manageable fashion. It would have to be so advanced indeed that such a microprocessor might be considered a small scale brain, sorting through symbols and their meanings to form contextually valid responses. Accordingly, if su ch a machine existed, it would pass the Turing test and validate the method of testing at the same time. If a machine was capable of mastering the context-sensitive language we use, it may very well have a claim to true thought. At the very least, the computer would surpass mimicry and be labeled a simulation. Human thought is so complicated and demanding that any device that attempts to duplicate it with any success would have to be a highly sensitive simulation. Any machine that passes the Turing test must have a rudimentary "knowledge" of the information it is using and therefore is more than parrot . Assuming this is true, we must then ask hard questions about the value of simulation. The critical claim is that any simulation is just a simulation and not a real example of what it is simulating. Hofstadter finds this fallacious, as do I. First, any simulation can reasonable defined in this context as the recreation of a natural event by an agent other than nature. This view bring s up the idea of levels in simulation. A good example is Dennett's simulated hurricane in Brainstorms. From the programmer's vantage point, the God Upon Examining Issues Of Mind And Thought, The Questions Of Artificial Upon examining issues of mind and thought, the questions of artificial intelligence and its capabilities become important considerations for answering the ultimate question of what thought truly is. Computerized calculation is one of the few events that is somewhat analogous to human cognitive thought, so the extension of this current technology to more advanced future applications makes it a very interesting testing area for questions into consciousness. If one concludes that the advancement from cash registers to present day computers is a step closer to human thought, then we must concede that progressing technology will bring us closer and perhaps to the very point of true cognitive skills. The dilemma left to us philosophers and scientists is to determine when a machine has reached the point of thought, or at least to create a rough guideline. A.M. Turing proposed a test to solve this problem. Named, appropriately enough, the Turing test, it contains a controversial method of te sting called the imitation game. The idea is to put one man and one woman in two rooms and have them questioned by an interrogator in a third room. The man would try to answer questions in a way which would suggest he is a woman. The woman attempts to answer in a way to reveal the truth of the matter. If the man fools the interrogator, it is said that he can think like a woman, or, at the very least, mimic a woman's responses. This game can also be played with a computer in the male slot, trying to convince the interrogator that it is human. It would follow reason that if a computer could pass this test, it could think like a human, or at least mimic one. Perhaps the abilities showcased in the test alone would not be sufficient, but Daniel C. Dennett claims that "[t]he assumption Turing was prepared to make was that nothing could possibly pass the Turing test by winning the Imitation Game without being able to perform indefinitely many other clearly intelligent actions" (Dennett 93) . One often cited criticism of this notion is the idea of mimicry. Imagine a program that stored an almost infinite amount of information regarding sentences and grammar and was able to spit out contextualy appropriate sentences to a wide variety of inquiries. The computer has no knowledge of what the information means; it is acting much as a parrot does. Luckily for Turing, there is no shortage of responses for this claim. First of all, as Douglas Hofstadter points outs, "[t]he number of sentences you'd need to store to be able to respond in a normal way to all possible sentences in a conversation is astronomical, really unimaginable" (Hofstadter 92). The computer would also have to contain a complex microprocessor to keep up with conversation in a timely and manageable fashion. It would have to be so advanced indeed that such a microprocessor might be considered a small scale brain, sorting through symbols and their meanings to form contextually valid responses. Accordingly, if su ch a machine existed, it would pass the Turing test and validate the method of testing at the same time. If a machine was capable of mastering the context-sensitive language we use, it may very well have a claim to true thought. At the very least, the computer would surpass mimicry and be labeled a simulation. Human thought is so complicated and demanding that any device that attempts to duplicate it with any success would have to be a highly sensitive simulation. Any machine that passes the Turing test must have a rudimentary "knowledge" of the information it is using and therefore is more than parrot . Assuming this is true, we must then ask hard questions about the value of simulation. The critical claim is that any simulation is just a simulation and not a real example of what it is simulating. Hofstadter finds this fallacious, as do I. First, any simulation can reasonable defined in this context as the recreation of a natural event by an agent other than nature. This view bring s up the idea of levels in simulation. A good example is Dennett's simulated hurricane in Brainstorms. From the programmer's vantage point, the God
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Book review on the cold war by mike sewell essays For 50 years the world was dominated by two superpowers. The cold war was a confrontation between the United States and Soviet Union, with the belief that the ideology of the other side had to be destroyed. The Soviet Union believed that the conflict between capitalism and communism was inevitable. The United States believed that peace and stability in the world would only emerge when the evil of communism was abolished. The cold war was a significant era in the history of the world as it shapes the economic, political and the ideological world today. Mike Sewells The Cold War thoroughly covers all stages of this era chronologically, from its origins, the confrontation between the powers and the collapse of the communist party in the early 1990s throughout seven sections. One of the positive aspects of reading the cold war is that it is based on a monograph therefore confined to the study of one topic. Whereas reading a book like world history since 1945, by jack Watson may give you broader knowledge of a longer period however it does not go into depth about each topic so the reader is only left with basic knowledge about the particular topic. The vocabulary used by mike Sewell is straightforward which is a positive aspect due to the reason that its is a core textbook at a-level history therefore it is more accessible to a wider audience, as well as students who are more able to understand. As a student, this book may be helpful for the reason that it provides questions at the end of each chapter regarding what has just been discussed. This can be seen to be a positive aspect during revision of the topic. The cold war is crucial era in history and many writers have written and commented on the time, mostly with conflicting views. Mike Sewell has based most of his writing on previous books. At the beginning of each chapter he allows the reader to be aware of these references by providing footnotes to back up his op ...